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体验式消费来袭,你让顾客“参与”了吗?

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发表于 2019-7-18 11:50:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



餐饮,历来是依靠口碑生存的行业,也历来有“神秘顾客”制度来模拟真实顾客反馈的传统。
如今,在互联网时代风起云涌的当下,手机行业的小米,已经在玩转“口碑”方面树立了一个很好的标杆,而如何引爆口碑,小米联合创始人黎万强是这样回答的:互联网思维核心是口碑为王,口碑的本质是用户思维,就是让用户有参与感。

靠用户参与,小米 IPO
基于互联网思维的参与感,对于传统的餐饮业而言并不陌生,甚至,在消费升级的当下将会成为一种餐饮潮流。

消费升级的一面:体验式消费崛起
这要从消费升级说起。
2016 年,中国人均 GDP 突破 8000 美元大关,纵观各国经济发展,人均 GDP 突破 8000 美元后,将会进入消费升级时代,这时消费者不再一味追求低价,而是更加追求产品品质与服务体验。
消费者选择商品的决策心理也会随之变化,顾客购买或消费商品,从最早的功能式消费,到后来的品牌式消费,到最近流行起来的体验式消费:在物资匮乏的年代,人们为了满足功能性需求而消费,那时候,消费者要买一块手表,并不在乎这是什么品牌,重要的是它能准确报告时间;随着社会发展,商品种类日益丰富,广告行业崛起,一时间顾问公司、广告公司、VI 设计火得不得了,在品牌运作最疯狂的时代,保健品与白酒行业最为突出,很多人应该还记得,有些保健品把广告刷到了全国的各个县城乡镇,甚至猪圈上都刷着广告……伴随着超级市场等体验式卖场逐渐渠道传统的百货商店,很多品牌基本上都销声匿迹了,这时体验式消费的时代来临——食物好吃不好吃?您先尝尝;衣服好看不好看?您穿上试试;手机用起来爽不爽?来体验店用用。
深究体验式消费风行的缘由,还是要落脚到消费者。年轻的消费群体生来就处于马斯洛需求理论的上三层(社交需求、尊重需求与自我实现需求),低价消费无法满足他们,同时经济与教育支持他们去对消费产生新的认知与需求,更快地接受新型的消费理念,更迅速地抛弃旧的消费观念。

服务的目的是满足消费者需求


“参与感”背后的2个消费者动机
“参与感”虽然说法比较笼统,但却是体验式消费最直观的表现方式,在它背后,有 2 个消费者动机。
在挖掘消费者动机之前,我们明确下什么是参与感。我们先来回忆一下你最近一次跟团旅游的场景,导游让你到了某个目的地之后进行购物,比起没有这项行为,单纯让你去一下景点来说,也是提升了参与感(开放了一个景点的参与节点),当然你会很不爽。
这个例子虽然负面,但是可以告诉你什么是参与感:在商品或者服务的生产或者传递的过程中,顾客必须要提供相应的活动或者资源(包括心理、时间、情感、行为等等付出),才能顺利享受服务的感受,其中的关键在于参与感本身意味着顾客从单纯的享受者变成了生产者(愿意也好,不愿意也罢)。
结合这个例子,我们回过头来讨论下参与感背后的 2 个消费者动机:
1.参与感可以提升用户的感知控制
心理学家做过这样一个实验:让被试者通过掷骰子来获取相应的奖励,骰子点数越高奖励价值越高,掷骰子的方案有两种,分别是  A 方案(付出 2 美元的成本,可以自己掷骰子)与 B 方案(不用支付任何成本,别人帮忙掷骰子)。
心理学家在不同的群体中做了类似的实验,结果却惊人的相似:几乎有80%以上的人选择了 A 方案,愿意支付 2 美元自己掷骰子,即使两种方案的概率完全一样。无数类似的实验结果证明:给予用户相应的控制感,会在一定程度上增加他们的满意度。
提供参与感,赋予消费者改变的权利,让消费者从单纯的享受者变成生产者,从本质上等于提升了顾客的控制感,之所以能够提升顾客满意度,是因为用户在参与创造某件产品,获得某项服务的过程中,加强了顾客的感知控制,比如说理发的时候,理发师问你“你想怎么剪头?”,你告诉他“稍微修一下”,其实也是参与,这个过程增加了你的感知控制,所以你会满意。(如果不问你想怎么剪,上来就动刀子,你是不是很慌?)
所以说参与感要做的,是让顾客做一件自己过去本身想做,但可能做不了的事情,增加他的控制感。
2.竞争的同质化,让心理价值变得越发重
随着市场激烈的竞争,品牌或产品之间的同质化越发严重,所以当产品所能提供的功能性价值很难再与竞争对手产生差异化的时候,心理性价值就显得格外重要。
设计更具参与感的商业模式,可以在品牌和消费者之间建立更多的情感连接(情感需求是马斯洛需求理论的第三层),提供给消费者更多的心理性价值。这个心理性价值指的是——通过参与,消费者获得了独特性的体验,感觉自己在创造某一件独一无二的东西。
毕竟消费者过去买到的,是固定的、标准化的东西,这让消费者感觉自己在纯粹在使用一样东西,我的和你的一样,但参与本身有个好处,它可以让人DIY——相当于是自己在创造某件东西,比如说赛百味可以让顾客自选调味品、新鲜蔬菜与每日烘焙的各式面包,在这个过程中消费者会很有参与感,感觉很爽。这个过程爽在哪?爽在你进行了独一无二的创造,生产出了一份属于你自己的东西——这是一种独特性的体验。

自己 DIY,会更有成就感
但如果说你让用户做出的参与行为,并不独特,而是很大众化的事情,并没有让他们觉得“我做这件事,显得我在创造一些独特的体验”,那用户为什么要参与呢?比如说转发抽奖虽然是一种参与,但太习以为常了,消费者并不会买账。

明档就是一种最简单的参与
最后,我想说的是,落实到商业层面,参与感是一件餐饮企业想做就能做的事情:在堂食中,生产与销售同时存在于门店中,餐厅只需要在一定程度上开放部分生产环节给消费者,那么消费者的参与感便会“油然而生”。当然,这并不是要商家一定要学习赛百味的模式,让顾客自选食物 DIY,其实方法很简单,像西贝、喜家德、木屋烧烤那样通过明档将烹饪过程展示给顾客看就是一种参与感,因为这是顾客之前想做,但可能做不了的事情。


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