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20几年过去了,活下来的电商们靠的是什么?

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发表于 2019-7-18 11:52:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



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你可知,当当、卓越、京东、乐淘曾经是同门师兄弟,都发迹于北京。
先说当当。
1996年,北大毕业的李国庆和俞渝邂逅,然后在纽约结婚。他们在美国找到了创业方向,那就是模仿当时的亚马逊,开始在网络上卖图书和音像。
凭借俞渝的金融投资背景,当当网找到了IDG和LCHC的天使投资,并在1999年正式上线运营,中国互联网史上最著名的夫妻店由此登上了历史舞台。
再说卓越。
卓越是雷军创办的,后来拉了在当杂志主编的陈年加入,一起草创卓越,直至04年时以7500万美元卖身给了亚马逊。
套了钱的雷军转身当了天使投资人,而陈年紧接着连续创业,终在2007年创办了凡客,一开始只卖衬衫和T恤。
之后是京东。
虽说刘强东在1998年就创办了京东,但那时只是苦逼地在中关村线下代理销售光磁产品,并且老亏钱。
直到03年非典来袭,刘强东关掉了所有线下店,并在04年转型上线了京东商城,卖起了3C产品。
最后是乐淘。
2005年百度在纳斯达克上市,那些持有股份的员工一夜之间发了。其中就包括毕胜,作为当时百度的市场总监,他一下子实现了财务自由。3年后,他离职创办了乐淘网。
因为背靠李彦宏,乐淘从百度那里获得了非常可观的流量,从一开始卖玩具,转型为销售鞋类品牌。

▲当当首页(上)、京东首页(中)和乐淘首页(下)对比


2
从2003年起,著名风险投资机构“老虎基金”看中了中国电商市场,并且撒豆成兵,当当、卓越、京东、乐淘由此成为了同门师兄弟。
后来卓越卖身,老虎基金又继续投资了凡客,加上先前的当当、京东、乐淘,被一起称为“虎门四将”。
估计那时李国庆、陈年、刘强东、毕胜坐在一起喝酒还挺和谐,因为它们那时都是垂直的B2C电商,也许最年长的李国庆会想说一句:
阿东你卖3C、老陈你卖衣服、小毕你卖鞋子,我来卖图书。我们各自安好,便是晴天。
一开始老陈、小毕都表示认同,但阿东不干,因为他的目标是星辰大海。
2010年当当网上市,刘强东跟李国庆道喜后,转头在同年11月上架了图书产品,标志着京东从3C电商转型成综合电商。
随后,京东宣布“京东图书一折起,买200送100”,一下子就打掉了当当网的6个毛利点。
但京东的战斗才刚开始,它其实只是拿当当练手,在2012年又用“价格战”去PK了苏宁和国美,因为它也看上了上万亿的大家电市场。
当然在那时,京东更像是搅屎棍,跟大佬阿里巴巴没法比,阿里也没把京东当成对手。
阿里巴巴作为老牌电商,在2000年左右从B2B电商起家;后来拥有对标eBay的C2C电商淘宝,在打败了同行易趣网后迅速发展;而后又在2012年独立出了B2C模式的天猫商城。
手握几大金刚的阿里,一直是中国最大的综合电商企业。
无论是“虎门四将”,还是新蛋网、亚马逊等外资,抑或是易迅、苏宁等企业,都在瑟瑟发抖的同时,暗自发力。
其中势头最猛的当然是京东,在打了几场仗之后能力、供应链体系不断膨胀,也终于把矛头对准了阿里。


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由此,中国电商进入了战国时代,出现几大特征:
·一是各大诸侯掀起了大规模的价格战。
典型代表就是京东,凭借价格战不断攻城略地、获取用户。而那些企图慢慢改良、坚守保守盈利政策的电商一下子就失去了大量地盘、被甩在了后头,比如当当网、新蛋和亚马逊。
·第二个特征是,做大了的垂直电商被裹挟着转型成综合平台电商。
这极大考验了综合运营能力,至少要包括供应链、融资能力、品控能力、内部管理能力、营销宣传能力等等。是骡子是马,此时原形毕露。
比如凡客,它的长板很突出,长在营销,2010年凡客体风靡一时,那也是它的巅峰时刻。
但与此同时,凡客的短板也很明显,尤其弱在品控方面,当大规模扩张品类后,在运营上简直惨不忍睹。
当然,凡客除了品类延伸没做好之外,在品类分类方面也失控了。
·第三个特征是,不断细化品类。
此时在巨头阴影下,依然诞生了一批小而美的垂直品类电商。因为随着各大电商打得不可开交,尤其是双11的出现,大量的线下经销商被震惊了,它们发现原来还可以在网上这样玩,于是纷纷抱团铺设电商渠道。
比如卖美妆的聚美优品、卖酒的酒仙网、卖母婴产品的蜜芽等等,就是在2010年左右成立的,并且火了好几年。

▲图来源艾瑞咨询:不同类型电商的市场份额占比


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战国时代打到最后,对立成了阿里巴巴和腾讯两大势力,而其他电商则印证了互联网典型的马太效应,强者愈强,弱者愈弱,其中就包括凡客的没落、当当和乐淘的卖身。
这就是电商的上半场,电商们集中火力在前端的品类扩张、价格战上面。
而如今电商进入了下半场,变成了以“后端的供应链管理”为主,并由此大大提升了用户体验。
具体来说,玩出了4个新花样:
·一是价值的回归。更注重产品的质量以及附加功能,这点正符合了产业消费升级的趋势。
·二是线上线下渠道的高度整合。
比如之前的各类O2O电商,还有这两年火得不得了的“新零售”,大大提高了用户的购物体验。
·三是物流环节的急剧发展。
除了覆盖网点的扩大,加入了人工智能、大数据、冷链的物流行业简直不要太炫酷。物流技术的快速发展,也由此带来了生鲜电商的崛起,当然,用户的快递体验也更爽了。
·四是新的供应商管理。
以往电商因为直接销售品牌商品,对接的供应商都是品牌商,但现在越来越多的电商直接对接了最底层的制造工厂。
这样就出现了像网易严选、有品、必要这样的ODM精选电商,给了用户不一样的性价比体验。
[url=http://www.shichangbu.com/data/attachment/portal/201804/16/144024i4ks0j1kbjnpsb73.jpg][/url]

▲精选电商对比:网易严选(上)、有品(中)和必要商城(下)


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我们会发现,如果说过去的电商打的是价格战,那么现在拼的是供应链。
这点,绝不仅仅限于电商行业,更适用于所有的行业。
行业初期跑马圈地打得不可开交,大都以低价去吸引用户,进入成熟阶段,就必然转向后端供应链的运营。
就像供应链管理专家马丁·克里斯多弗说过的:“市场上只有供应链没有企业,真正的竞争不是企业与企业之间的竞争,而是供应链和供应链之间的竞争。”
比如小米,之所以能主打性价比,跟它背后的供应链管理息息相关,由此带来了成本的下降;
还有在线下的名创优品,门店都开在租金昂贵的商场,可人家却能做到物美价廉、并且自己也能赚到钱,这背后就是供应链的力量;
再比如餐饮行业的小龙虾,之所以能火遍大江南北、乃至成为电商爆品,背后除了养殖技术的发展,更得益于小龙虾供应链体系的发展,甚至细分出了大量专门做龙虾的供应链品牌。
众多行业,概莫能外。意识不到这点,企业终将遭遇瓶颈,从哪里来,回哪里去。


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