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如何“算计”消费者?我从双12中学到了6种方法

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发表于 2019-7-18 11:56:28 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

原标题:老子辛辛苦苦一年,「双十二」花点钱咋了?




听说你刚发工资啊,过了昨晚还剩多少呀?
说来很奇妙,小编“双十一”的时候明明感觉自己都“买齐了”,但是昨天莫名其妙地又有了好多东西“需要”买,花了一千多。

不少文章说这是人们被「洗脑」了,是一群傻 X 被商家忽悠着「从众」。这话我就不爱听了,现如今人们都精着呢(尤其是我们运营社的读者),你一个写公众号的哪儿来的优越感,装什么理中客呢?
“双十一”优惠力度有限,“双十二”更不消说,人人都知道。但是,我们还是在这 2 个购物节买东西,为什么?因为在这一天,我们不是在买东西,而是在犒劳自己。
这在经济学上可以用「心理账户」来解释。我们在心里开了好几个银行账户,不同账户里的钱用途不一样,有的用来维持生计,有的用来享受生活,有的用来自我提升,有的用来维系感情……

一个经典的案例:
你今晚要去看一场 600 块钱的音乐会。正准备出门时,你不小心把手机摔到了地上,昨天花 600 块换的屏幕又碎了,此时你会想:倒霉啊,快去看音乐会散散心。换一种情况,你刚出门,一掏口袋发现兜里装着的门票丢了,此时你的想法变成了:再花 600 块去看音乐会,我可没这么土豪啊。
摔碎屏幕和弄丢门票,损失的都是 600 块,你的反应却完全不同,是不是很有意思?这是因为,换屏幕的花费和看音乐会的花费,在我们心里属于不同的「心理账户」。
屏幕摔碎了我们固然很心疼,但是我们觉得这笔钱跟看音乐会没有关系;而丢了门票再去买一张,我们会觉得自己是花两张票的钱看了一场音乐会,那就亏大了。你看,同样数额的钱,从不同的心理账户支出时,我们的感觉完全不同。
因此,我们在“双十二”购物,本质上并不是因为这一天能省多少钱,而是因为我们把这一天当作了一个可以“放肆”一下、犒劳自己的日子;在这一天,我们用「犒劳自己」的心理账户为这一切买单。我们保持了一整年的克制,只在这一天善待一下自己,而且确实省了一笔钱,难道还有比这更理智的事情吗?
话虽如此,我们在购物节普遍掏出了比原计划更多的钱也是不争的事实。为了成全我们这一次小小的放肆,商家们也是费尽了心机。
像下图这种利用“稀缺”促使我们匆忙下单的就不多说了,今天讲几个新颖一点的“算计”消费者的方法。

价格分割
即使是从「犒劳自己」的心理账户花钱,遇到很贵的东西,我们心里也会犯嘀咕。为了打消我们的顾虑,商家玩了一招「价格分割」,把很高的总价分割开来,分摊到更小的单位上,使商品显得非常划算。
比如下图中的奶粉,一笔订单要 900 多块,商家怕高昂的价格吓坏了消费者,于是把费用均摊成了 99.58元/500g:

这么一看,确实划算多了。
这招卖课的喜欢用,把 199 块钱一年的课,分摊成 5 毛钱一天。



比例偏见
149 块的东西,100 块卖给你;
1250 块的东西,1200 块卖给你。
哪个省得更多?但凡上过小学的读者都能算出来,后者省得更多,但是我们对前者的感知却强烈得多(先不考虑其他复杂情况)。这说明,相对于绝对数值,我们对比例更敏感。
利用这点,一些商家打出了这样的促销广告:

买 1 享 9,简直划算死了有没有?!虽然我是男的压根不知道这些是啥,虽然我知道是买 1 个贵的送 8 个便宜的,但是我仍然感觉这玩意儿巨划算啊!理智根本抵御不了内心的原始冲动。
相形之下,同样的玩法,这个活动就差得远了:

不过由于利用了「比例偏见」,「1 元抢百元券」比「优惠 99 元」听起来还是划算一点点,在挣钱这件大事上,一点点也是非常重要的。


价格锚点
Quora 答主艾森伯格在一篇文章中提到餐厅设计菜单的一点小“心机”:
很多菜单上的第一道菜就是个“托”,老板故意把它的价格定得特别高,好让其他菜显得便宜。假如一盆麻辣小龙虾标价 218,那它后面 48 块的水煮肉片就显得非常划算了。
这个 218 块的小龙虾就是「价格锚点」,它像抛进大海的船锚一样,给多少钱算便宜、多少钱算贵定了一个标准。在这个标准下,菜单上的其他菜都显得很便宜。
“双十二”的商家当然也会这招:

你一定能猜到,这个商家根本就没想过要按 899 块卖货,这个「¥899」标价唯一的作用就是,让「¥499」显得便宜。

沉没成本
如果你贪图 499 的“便宜”,付了定金,那就掉入了商家的第二个陷阱——沉没成本。
沉没成本是已经付出的东西,它对未来明明不构成影响,人们却总是为之纠结、难以挣脱。
最经典的案例就是你花 49 块钱去看电影,看了 20 分钟发现是烂片。此时最好的选择是赶紧离场,但你却硬着头皮看到了最后,因为你觉得不看完这 49 块钱就“白花了”。其实不管你是否看到最后,这 49 块钱都花出去了,看到最后钱也回不来。
同理,在这场促销活动中,一旦人们交了定金,即使后来不想买这件东西了,往往也会硬着头皮去买,否则 99 元就“白花了”。

实际上,即使硬着头皮去买,那 99 元的定金也没还给你,而且你还额外遭受了一次失败购物的摧残。

变相搭售
先看案例,某品牌电脑主机的促销文案:

明明就是卖「主机+键盘+内存条」,偏要说成是卖主机、送键盘、免费升级内存条。
本来是「花了 3 笔钱,每笔钱各得 1 样东西」,愣是变成了「只花 1 笔钱,就能得到 3 样东西」,绕得我以为自己获利翻了 9 倍。这个偷换概念玩得多巧妙!
这种营销策略同样利用了我们微妙的心理。这种微妙的心理是,面对收益和损失,我们对次数非常敏感,对绝对值则比较迟钝。举例来说:
我们丢 200 块钱和丢 300 块钱的痛苦其实差不多,但是上午刚丢了 100 块、下午紧接着又丢 200 块,我们就痛苦得多了。同样的,如果我们分 2 次捡到 300 块,快乐程度要远远高于一次捡到 300 块。
回到这个电脑商家的案例。如果要分开卖主机、键盘和内存条,就得让消费者掏 3 次钱、承受 3 次痛苦,难度可想而知。
相比之下,通过「变相搭售」,虽然这 1 次掏的钱是前面 3 次的总和,但是消费者其实辨别不出来,他们只会觉得自己只痛苦了 1 次就拿了 3 样东西,还以为占了商家的便宜呢。

损失厌恶
上面讲到我们对损失和收益的敏感,如果分开观察,我们会发现,我们对损失的厌恶远远大于对收益的喜爱。引用刘润的一个例子:
你在地铁站捡到了 100 块钱,下地铁之后发现这 100 块不知啥时候被人偷走了。按理说你的收益和损失刚好抵消了,但是你的内心却有一万匹神兽奔腾。
很多人会担心“不合适”而放弃网购,尤其是买衣服、鞋子的时候,就是害怕遭受损失。为了打消人们的顾虑,天猫推出了“七天无理由退换”政策:

这项政策会导致退货潮吗?答案是不会。还是因为“损失厌恶”心理,人们不愿意失去自己盼星星盼月亮等来的宝贝;加上“双十二”买到的是折扣价,如果退货就会损失这部分折扣,对于大多数人来说这是难以接受的。
总结一下卖家“算计”我们的 6 种套路:
1)价格分割
2)比例偏见
3)价格锚点
4)沉没成本
5)变相搭售
6)损失厌恶
然而,与其说我们被算计了,不如说我们和卖家出于默契,联手导演了一场购物狂欢。生活不易,我们「犒劳自己」账户里的钱,总要找个机会花出去啊。
老子辛辛苦苦一年,「双十二」花点钱咋了?
· END ·


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