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你与10万+的爆文之间只隔着这本书的距离

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文 | 好书君(公众号:遇见好书)

为什么有的人30分钟就能完成一篇文章,而且能成为爆文?为什么有的人冥思苦想后写出的文章,无人问津?

其实,那些写作能力出众的人,大多是掌握了一些写作套路,并在写作的过程中反复不断地使用,才能实现高产高效。

说到写作套路,网上一搜一大堆,但看过的人,即没有出过爆文,也没有成为大咖,为什么呢?

因为那些写作葵花宝典仅仅是供别人看的,根本没有实操性。

那么,有没有一本书对写作真的有帮助?答案是:有。名叫《一本小小的红色写作书》。


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它的作者是布兰登•罗伊尔,先后出版了《一本小小的蓝色逻辑书》、《一本小小的红色写作书》、《一本小小的金色语法书》等经典著作,其作品先后五次荣获“国际图书奖”、五次荣获“总统图书奖”金奖。

这本书和它的名字一样,真的很小,正文120页,如果阅读速度快点,30分钟就可以搞定。

之所以推荐这本书,并不是它帮助我提高了多少写作水平,而是书中所列的20条写作原则,值得每个写作者了解和掌握。

当然,掌握了这些技巧,不一定就能提升写作技能,但肯定对写作有帮助。

本书从结构、风格、可读性三个方面,列举了20条写作原则,涵盖的技巧几乎适用于所有类型的写作。


[url=https://www.iyunying.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/yunying-1527226363-1.jpeg]






                                                                              |结|构|

原则1:把总结或结语放在开头

很多人的写作套路是通过一个故事或一大堆数据的分析,最终总结提炼出一个结论。但随着自媒体的迅猛发展,阅读也迈入了快餐式轨道,很多人阅读文章大多在电梯里,洗手间,如何在较短的时间里抓住读者就显得尤为重要。

这一原则,就是要在第一时间把作者的中心思想传给读者,作者就不必猜测作者的写作意图,文章大意。

原则2:善用引导词引导读者

这是很多网络小说惯用的伎俩,比如一个章节快完的时候,作者会抛出一个让读者非常感兴趣的点,然后嘎然而止。欲知后事如何,请听下回分解。

写一般文章的时候,在整篇文章开头,每一段开头都要注意善用引导词,如果引导词用得好,读者更有读下去的欲望。

原则3:用好转折词

转折词被称为语言的交通灯。具有四大功效:对比、举例、接续和总结。

表示说明的词语包括首先、其次、比如和譬如;因此提示总结;然而提示对比;而且提示递进。

一篇文章如果转折词用得好,不但层次分明,而且逻辑也更清晰。

原则4:掌握基本的写作结构

写作中最常用的六种写作结构:范畴结构、评价结构、时间结构、比较结构、线性结构、因果结构。

比如在时间结构中,先讨论最早发生的事件,然后按时间顺序推进;在比较结构中,先谈最重要的观点等等。

原则5:遵循物以类聚

大家都去看过车展,如果把大众、奔驰、宝马、丰田、吉利、哈弗全混在一起,购买者就很难区分,也抓不住重点。

写文章也一样,如果把很多观点都放在一起,阅读和理解起来就很困难。


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                                                                               |风|  格|

原则6、7:用词精准,例证鲜活

用最短的文字表述最多的信息。也就是说,避免拖泥带水,能用10个字解决问题的,绝不用11个字。而且,适当的加入例证,可以给文章的主干提供强力支撑。

但需要注意的是,引用的例证必须要与主题吻合,不能为了引用而引用,反而把主题越描越黑。

原则8:说大家都听得懂的人话

我看过很多文章,作者为了显摆自己有水平,有学问,喜欢用一些生僻字和高大上的词汇。

要知道,并不是所有的读者都高大上,什么层次的都有,作者懂不代表读者也能懂,所以,写作千万别显摆。

原则9:砍断长句

这个很好理解,就是避免一句话把读者读死。

推荐看看咪蒙的文章,她在砍断长句方面做得非常好。

原则10:删除不必要的词汇

俗话说有舍才有得。很多人写文章,就是舍不得删,总觉得辛辛苦苦写出来的文,不影响大意就尽量不删吧,这恰恰犯了大忌。

看了这条原则以后,回去看原来的文章,每篇文章至少可以删减1/5。

要知道文章不应该有不必要的段落,就像机器不能有多余的零件一样。

原则11:多用主动句,少用被动句

主动语态多以行为为导向,更直接,简练,减少了必须词汇量。

如:

被动:公司活动由行政办组织。

主动:行政办组织了公司活动。

原则12:多用动词,少用名词

名词会使句子变长,使读者提取句子含义时更费力。

原则13:多使用平行句

写作中的平行,就是指一句话中相似的部分应当使用相同的方式表达,这样能使句子表达更清晰有力。

比如:虚心的人有福了,因为天国是他们的。哀恸的人有福了,因为他们必得安慰。温柔的人有福了,因为他们必承受地土。饥渴慕义的人有福了,因为他们必得饱足。

原则14:善于变化句式

10种变换句子开头的方法:用主题开头,用短语开头,用从句开头,用冠词开头,用动词开头,用副词开头,用形容词开头,用动名词开头,用不定式开头,用关联词开头。

原则15:多用积极语气

写作中,尽量多使用积极的语气,这样读者本能的更能接受。

同时,一些消极的语气也可以转换成积极的语气进行表述。如:“商店晚上7点关门”可转化为“商店一直到晚上7点都开着。”

原则16:保持文章性别中立,避免使用阳性词

涉及两种性别的情形时,不能仅用“他”。


[url=https://www.iyunying.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/yunying-1527226364-1.jpeg]






                                                                          |可 | 读  |性|  

原则17:排好版,让读者更舒适

掌握排版技巧。学会多观察别人的文章,体会舒适的阅读设计。这里面包括字体大小,行距,间距,配图等等。

原则18:突出作者观点

文章中的干货部分可以采用加粗的形式,突出作者观点,这样更利于读者第一时间抓住。

原则19:善用标题或提要

标题和提要有助于高效传递信息,使文章层次更清,重点更突出。

原则20:修改

俗话说:“好文章都是改出来的。”很少有作家能够一气呵成地完成一篇完美的文章,大多数写作高手需要至少三遍才能完成一篇短篇小说。

所以,修改是写作中非常重要的一个环节。

写在最后:再好的方法如果只是看看,不加以运用,那永远也不能为己所用。 这20条写作原则,如果在写作过程中认真遵循,勤加练习,假以时日文章一定会有质的飞跃。



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